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Time : 3 Hours  Maximum Marks : 80

Q.1. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow: (12 Marks)
Today's wars have little in common with the battles of the 19th century. The fighting has gradually moved from clearly defined battlefields to populated areas. Traditional war between armies of opposing states is the exception, while non-international conflicts have become the norm. Nowadays, civilians bear the brunt of armed conflicts.

International humanitarian law has adapted to this change. Appalled by the destruction and suffering caused by the Second World War, states agreed in the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 on comprehensive protection for those who are not or are no longer participating in hostilities - wounded and sick soldiers, prisoners of war and civilians. This cornerstone of international humanitarian law was supplemented in 1977 and 2005 by three additional protocols. The use of certain weapons, such as biological or chemical weapons, cluster munitions and anti-personnel mines is now widely outlawed. The law has placed barriers to protect the most vulnerable from the brutality of war. Its implementation has also seen a certain amount of progress, such as in the training of soldiers or in the prosecution of the worst war crimes, thanks in particular to the founding of the International Criminal Court (ICC).

Nevertheless, regular serious breaches of international humanitarian law are a cause of suffering. Underlying it all is our collective failure. The Contracting States undertook in Article 1 - common to the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 - to respect and to ensure respect for these Conventions in all circumstances. International humanitarian law has, since its conception, lacked mechanisms for encouraging effective compliance. This impotence has often meant death and destruction for those affected by war.

Since the adoption of the first Geneva Convention 150 years ago, international humanitarian law has become a central pillar of the international legal order. Ultimately its provisions serve to protect our key characteristic as human beings: our humanity. This is an irrevocable right. It is based on the belief, forged over centuries and in all our cultures, according to which it is essential to lay down rules if we want to prevent wars from degenerating into barbarism. It is up to our generation to consolidate these achievements and to create an institutional framework to ensure these rules are respected. If it is to be fully effective, the law needs suitable instruments. Never in the history of humankind have we been closer to a solution than we are today.

I. Answer the following questions briefly: (6 Marks)
1. How are today's wars different from the wars of the 19th century?
2. What was the significant change brought about by the Geneva Conventions of 1949?
3. What is the state of its implementation?
4. What is the reason behind the regular breaches of the IHL?
5. How can the law become completely effective?
6. Do you agree with the author that we are closer to a solution today than ever before?

II. Choose the correct option from the following: (6 Marks)
1. How did the International Humanitarian Law (IHL) change between 1977 and 2005?
a. Abolished use of biological and chemical weapons.
b. Abolished use of cluster munitions
c. Abolished use of anti-personnel mines
d. All of the above.

2. When and why was the Geneva Convention adopted?
a. 1949; to prevent wars from taking place.
b. 1977-2005; to prevent humanity during wars.
c. 150 years ago; to preserve humanity during wars.
d. 100 years ago; to prevent wars from taking place.

3. What does the word "brunt" mean in this context?
a. Artillerie
b. Chief impact of a specified action.
c. Burns/Burning feet (A medical condition)
d. All of the above.

4. What does the word "appalled mean in this context?
a. Surprised
b. Hurt/ Injured
c. Dismayed/Horrified
d. Estranged

5. What does the word "irrevocable" mean in this context?
a. Irascible
b. Unrectifiable
c. Irreparable
d. Irresponsive

6. What does the word "forged" mean in this context?
a. Imitated; fake
b. Broken
c. Created
d. Barricaded

Q.2. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow: (8 Marks)
Information is power. It is predictable, therefore, that those in authority will seek to manipulate others through the control of data. However, all information in a democratic society should be freely available unless there are specific, well-formulated reasons for withholding it in the interest of security.

The importance of freedom of information functions at a number of different levels: in itself, for the fulfillment of all other rights and as an underpinning of democracy. Information held by public bodies is not only for the benefit of officials or politicians but for the public as a whole. Unless there are good reasons for withholding such information, all interested parties should be able to access it. More importantly, freedom of information is a key component of transparent and accountable government. It plays a key role in enabling citizens to see what is going on within government, and in exposing corruption and mismanagement. Transparent and open government is also essential if voters are to be able to assess the performance of elected officials and if individuals are to exercise their democratic rights effectively, for example through timely protests against new policies, or by using their vote against candidates who have indulged in undemocratic activity.

Freedom of expression and access to information is a fundamental right and must be held as a cornerstone of democracy. In its absence, government can, and often does, behave with impunity. It is argued, however, that it is not an absolute right - the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) for instance, specifies certain permissible constraints. One of these is the right of the state to withhold information 'for the protection of national security or of public order, or of public health and morals'. This is irascibly vague and provides many loopholes for governments to use this wording as a basis for restricting information that is inconsistent with their ambitions.

The public's right to know is an intrinsic part of informed public debate, which has traditionally been dependent on the freedom to receive and impart information without government interference. However, it may also be argued that this does not mean a right to receive any type of information from the government. It is of paramount importance that any restrictions on information or expression regarding security matters must designate in law only the specific and narrow categories of information absolutely necessary to protect a legitimate national security concern. A threat to national security can be defined as 'any expression or information that is intended to incite imminent violence, or is likely to incite violence. In addition, there
must be a direct and immediate connection between the expression and the likelihood or occurrence of such violence. The public interest in having information at all times must remain a priority consideration in any FOI Bill, and that any denial of this right be subject to independent review.

Along these lines, in a seminal judgment in 1982, the Indian Supreme Court held that, 'The concept of an open Government is the direct emanation from the right to know which seems to be implicit in the right of free speech and expression…disclosure of information in regard to the functioning of government must be the rule and secrecy an exception justified only where the strictest requirement of public interest so demands'.

1. Read the passage given above and make notes on it. Use recognizable abbreviations where necessary. (5 Marks)
2. Write a summary of the given composition in your own words. Word limit: 80 - 100 words. (3 Marks)


Q.3. Child Labour is a serious offence affecting millions of children in the country. On urging people to behalf of the Child Welfare Ministry, design an attractive poster urging people to help prevent injustice towards minors.


You are Joseph Mathew, Vice Principal of Sr. Aloysius Secondary School. Write a notice for the school notice board informing the students about the audition schedule for the annual play festival to be organised soon. (4 Marks)

Q.4. You are Pushpit/pushpa, 62 B, Mayur Vihar, New Delhi. Write a letter to the Editor of the Hindustan Times about 'Misuse of Computers, T.V. and Mobile by children' in about 120-150 words.


You are Ansh/Anshu of 15, Alipur road, Delhi. Write A letter to the Municipal Commissioner about the insanitary conditions of your locality. (6 Marks)

Q.5. Write an article for your school magazine about 'girl Child, her problems and suggestions for women empowerment' You are Madhur/Madhumita.


Write a speech on the topic' A healthy mind dwells in a healthy body'. You are Vimi/Vipul. (10 Marks)

Q.6. The following passage has not been edited. There is one error in every line. Write the incorrect word and the correction

Dr. Carver was an American Negro slave,
who by the dint of his ability becomes a (a)........
scientist or educator of worldwide fame. (b).......
A national monument had now been erected (c)......
to honour him. This monument has been build (d).......
at his birthplace in the United State of America.
Carvers life and achievements support the American (e).....
saying ,''You couldn't keep a great man down.'' (f).......


Rearrange the following words to make meaningful sentences
(i) reeling under/a tsumani/at present/the blow/is/of/Japan. 
(ii) the second world war/is/as great as/it/a catastrophe. 
(iii) encouragement/seem/and/deep /inspiration /gone/to have/temple/into/the construction. 
(iv) Japenese bush that/is gardens and yards/is grown/Japonica/ is a. (4 Marks)

Q.8. Complete the following sentences by supplying suitable clauses
(i) He is the boy...........
(ii) Unless you tell me the truth..............
(iii) Though he is poor............... (3 Marks)


Q.9. Read the lines given below and answer the questions given below (3 Marks)
The cardboard shows me how it was
When the two girl cousins went padding.
Each one holding one of my mother's hands,
And she the big girl- some twelve years or so.
(a) Name the poem and the poem concerned.
(b) The word 'paddling' shows.......
(c) What is the cardboard?

Q.10. Answer the following questions briefly. (9 Marks)
(a) Who is Elsa? What advice does she give to Albert to clear the diploma?
(b) What were the funerary treasures found in the pharaoh's tomb?
(c) Why did Ranga's homecoming create a commotion in the city?

Q.11. How do the earth's vital signs show a patient in declining health? (3 Marks)

Q.12. Khushwant Singh's grandmother was a representative character. Comment. (3 Marks)

Q.13. (i) The Otis family is quite brave but Virginia is the bravest of all. Comment. (6 Marks)
(ii) Describe the funeral scene of Sir Simon as depicted in the story. (6 Marks)

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