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Q.1. What is meant by human development?

Ans. It is a ‘Human-centred’ approach towards development which focuses on people. It is concerned with the people and their well being, their needs, choice and aspirations. Its purpose is to create such conditions of life which may help them to develop to their own genius.

Q.2. What is the present sex ratio in India?

Ans. Present sex-ratio is 933 females per thousand males according to 2001 Cencus.

Q.3. What do you mean by health?

Ans. Health means physical, mental, economic and social well being of an individual and not only survival. We must investment in health as it is a part of human resource

Q.4. What do you mean by Gender Inequality?

Ans. The status and opportunities enjoyed by men are not enjoyed by women, it is called gender inequality. On several counts women are treated as unequal gender in India.

Q.5. Mention various criteria of measuring human development.


What is human development index? Write about basic components of human measurement.

Ans. As per United Nation Development Programme (UNDP), Human Development is the over all measurement of : –
(i) Longevity – showing long and healthy life which is measured by ‘life expectancy at birth’. This indicates how long a new born baby is expected to live.
(ii) Knowledge – It is a choice of literacy information. To be measured by the percentage of educational attainment, a combined gross enrolment ratio in primary, secondary and tertiary level.
(iii) Decent standard of living – A choice to enjoy a quality and standard life. It is measured by per capital income.  The rank of a country is obtained by the overall achievement in these three basic dimensions of human development.

Q.6. Why is literacy essential for human development?

Ans. Literacy is essential for the following reason:
(i) It helps a man for his all round development.
(ii) It will helps him to become a skilled worker and get higher pay than any illiterate one.
(iii) It will keep him away from bad habits like drinking, gambling etc.
(iv) It helps a man to acquire good habits and become a good citizen of his country.

Q.7. Identify different thrust areas of human development?

Ans. Thrust areas of human development are:
(i) Health
(ii) Gender Equity
(iii) Gender Empowerment

Q.8. Enumerate various diseases against which National Health Programme have been launched.

Ans. Diseases against which National Health Programme have been launched:
(i) Polio (ii)Tuberculosis (iii) AIDS (iv) Leprosy (v) Blindness (vi) Cancer (vii) Diabetes and (viii) Iodine deficiency.

Q.9. What does HDI measure?

Ans. HDI is the cumulative measurement of :
(i) Longevity (ii) Knowledge (iii) Decent standard of living.
We can say that HDI measures quality of life.

Q.10. What does Gender Empowerment focus upon?

Ans. Ans.: - Gender Empowerment focuses on:
(i) Gender inequality in economic and political opportunities.
(ii) Participation in the process of decision making.
(iii) Loking into the inequality from community to community, region to region, race to race within a country.
(iv) Tracking the percentage of women in Parliament, State Legislature, senior officials and manager among professionals and technical workers.

Q.11. Describe various factors which have contributed towards gender inequality.

Ans. Factors responsible for Gender Inequality are:
(i) Low status of women.
(ii) Discrimination against the girl-child.
(iii) Neglect of female education, health care and economic rights.
(iv) Child marriage.
(v) Dowry-system.
(vi) No permission of widow marriage.

Q.12. What contributes to human development?

Ans. Things contributing to human development are:
(i) To lead a long and healthy life.
(ii) To have education, information and knowledge.
(iii) To have opportunities to get livelihood, a decent standard of living and sustained development.
(iv) To have personal and social security.
(v) To acquire equality and enjoyment of human right.
(vi) To have responsible government and good governance.

Q.13. Explain human development and distinguish it from economic development.

Ans. Human development – It is a ‘Human-centred’ approach towards development which focuses on people. It is concerned with the people and their well being, their needs, choice and aspirations. Its purpose is to create such conditions of life which may help them to develop to their own genius. It is a wider term which includes economic development, development of one’s knowledge, educational capabilities and health condition so that an individual can live a healthy life. Economic Development – A part of human development. It improve the economic and financial condition of the individual. It may not improve his /her social, political, religious and emotional condition of life.

Q.14. Describe the various efforts made by the Government of India in the field of health.

Ans. Effort made by the Government in the field of health:
(i) The life expectancy at birth in India has increased and reached nearly 62 years.
(ii) The mortality rate declined to 9 per thousand, infant mortality has come down to 70 per thousand and maternal mortality rate has also declined.
(iii) Considerable progress has been achieved to overcome nutritional problems in the country.
(iv) Smallpox has been completely eradicated and Maleria, T.B., Fileria, Leprosy, etc. have been controlled.
(v) The number of hospitals, doctors, nurses, compounders and extension of health facilities has been increased.
(vi) Special attention has been given to rural areas.
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